Supernovae

Published on May 28, 2016

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Supernovae are stars which burst in a stellar explosion. The bursting of supernovae is one of the most amazing events of the Universe. When supernovae burst, they throw away matter into the space at 9000to 25000 miles per second. These blasts produce much of the material in the Universe, such as elements like iron, which is contained in all of us and also our planet. Heavy elements are only produced by the supernovae. The word “supernova” is derived from the “nova” which means new. The Explosion of supernovae releases a tremendous amount of radio waves, X-rays and also cosmic rays. Actually, the explosion overtakes the whole galaxy in which it blows up. The amount of energy emitted in one explosion of a supernova is equal to the amount of energy which is emitted by the Sun.

The supernovae are very bright and for its brightness to fade away; it can take weeks and sometimes even months. During the explosion, the luminous radiations keep exploding out and all the material of the exploding star is barred in the outer space. Every star does not explode. The Sun will never explode. Stars which are 10 to 100 times bigger than the sun ultimately explode and create an explosion of supernovae. When the huge stars ultimately run low on hydrogen, then the remaining hydrogen pushes outwards near the shell and surrounds a core of helium. The explosion of supernovae fires out billions of atoms in every direction and they form colorful nebulae. The exploding star may end up as a nebula and a black hole. But, if the star is not a very big then the explosion of supernovae may end up as a nebula and a neutron star. Kinetic energy is also produced by the expanding of supernova remnant which can squeeze the highly thick molecular clouds in the interstellar space and also form stars. In the interstellar space, supernovae are the main source of metals. Elements such as gold and Uranium are also formed during the explosion. They are formed due to the high temperature caused by the explosion.

History

In 185 AD, a Chinese astronomer viewed the earliest recorded supernova, SN 185. Before the 17th Century, only seven supernovae were said to have been recorded. In 1054, the most famous of them occurred and was seen in one of the horns of the constellation Taurus. Since 1604, the most easily observed and closest of the hundreds of supernovae has been recorded and it was first sighted on 24 February 1987 in the morning by the Canadian astronomer Ian Keith Shelton when he was working in Chile at the las Campanas Observatory.  Around 14 billion years ago, the first star of the Universe became supernovae. SN 1604 was the last known explosion of supernovae in the Galaxy Milky Way. In the year 1885, in the Andromeda galaxy, the latest supernova was observed which is known as S Andromeda.

Types

Supernovae can be divided into two broad categories. Type I and type II.

On the basis of their spectra, type I is divided into three subcategories-la, lb and lc. In type I, the accurate number of the explosion mechanism is generally uncertain. La supernova is theoretically supposed to originate in the binary system, which consists of a moderately white dwarf and huge star. Type la supernova is the useful searches of the structure of the Universe because they all have the same light. The spectra of type II supernovae contain no lines of hydrogen and they expand quickly.

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