The United States civilian program is represented by the National Aeronautics and Space administration and is also responsible for the also for research of the aerospace and aeronautics. On July of the year the year 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower brought into being the establishment called NASA. On 29 July 1958, he got passed the National Aeronautics and Space Act by disestablishing the NASA’s forerunner, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). On 1 October 1958, the new agency becomes operational. While that time, NASA guided many US space discovery efforts, such as the Sky lab space station, Apollo-moon landing mission and the Space Shuttle. This agency is also liable for the LSP (Launch Service Program) that provide supervision of launch operations and countdown management for unknown launches of NASA.
Throughout its history, NASA has performed many manned and unmanned spaceflight programs. In unmanned programs NASA launched the first American Artificial satellite into the orbit of the Earth for the purpose of the Science and communication. Starting with Mars, Venus and “grand tours” of the outer planets, NASA also sent a scientific survey to explore the planets of the Solar system.
The birth of NASA was directly related to the demands of national protection. After the World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States were active in the cold war, they have a wide contest over the loyalty and beliefs of the impartial nations. During this period of time space exploration appear as a most important area of contest and became known as the space race.
Satellites of NASA
On 31st January 1958, the United States launched its first Earth Satellite. Within the months of its formation, NASA initiated to perform space missions. During its first twenty years, it conducted many major programs. During 1961-1963, NASA conducted Mercury’s single astronaut program to determine if a human could survive in space. In the year 1965 to 1966, to practice space operations, it conducted project Gemini with two astronauts. From 1968 to 1972, NASA conducted the program Apollo to explore the Moon. On 25th May 1961, Apollo project became NASA’s priority. NASA also conducts remote sensing earth satellite for gathering of information and application satellites for communications. It also launches the space shuttle, a reusable spacecraft for traveling to and from the orbit of the Earth.
After the gap of some years, in the 1981, NASA returned to human spaceflight with the beginning of the space shuttle. On 12th April 1981, the shuttle’s first task STS-1 got off by revealing that it could take off up and down and land in a non-powered landing like an airplane. NASA did revolutionary work in the space applications such as communications satellites. The Telstar, Echo, Syncom and Relay satellites were built by the NASA. In the years 1972, 1975 and 1978, the first three Land-sat satellites were launched by the NASA, which sent out back to earth difficult stream of data and that could be changed into colored pictures. Data of Land-sat have been used in the variety of practical commercial applications like fault line detection, crop management and also to know about many types of weather such as a forest fire, ice floes and drought. NASA has also been involved in the many types of efforts of Earth science, such as data processing and Earth Observation System of spacecraft which have given up important scientific results in areas like global warming, climate change and tropical deforestation.